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Gel-Sol Synthesis of Rutile Nanoparticles

Dejan Verhovšek, Maja Lešnik, Nika Veronovski, Zoran Samardžija, Kristina Žagar, Miran Čeh


Titanium dioxide (TiO2) rutile nanoparticles were synthesized at temperatures below 100 °C using a gel-sol process that provides control of the final particles’ characteristics, such as the nanoparticle size, morphology, crystal structure and crystallinity. The synthesized rutile nanoparticles were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the gel-sol process allows control over the final nanoparticle characteristics with the proper choice of reaction parameters. The most profound influence on the nanoparticles’ properties is achieved by the type and concentration of the acid used in the reaction mixture. The gel-sol synthesis resulted in anisotropic rutile nanoparticles that are 60–160 nm long, depending on the reaction parameters, and have an aspect ratio of about 5. A reaction mechanism is presented, explaining the influence of various reaction parameters on the characteristics of the TiO2 nanoparticles.


rutile; nanoparticles; gel-sol synthesis

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