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Electrochemical Oxidation of Different Therapeutic Classes of Pharmaceuticals Using Graphite-PVC Composite Electrode

Zainab H. Mussa, Fouad F. Al-Qaim, Zahraa H. Alqaim, Jalifah Latip


This study reports electrochemical treatment of different therapeutic classes of pharmaceuticals (caffeine, prazosin, enalapril, carbamazepine, nifedipine, levonorgestrel, and simvastatin) in a mixture. The electrochemical process was investigated using graphite-PVC anode at different applied voltages (3, 5, and 12 V), initial concentrations of studied pharmaceuticals in aqueous solution (5 and 10 mg/L), and concentrations of sodium chloride (1 and 2 g/L). The % removal of pharmaceuticals increased with the applied voltage, and was found higher than 98% after 50 min of electrolysis at 5 V. Energy consumption ranged between 0.760 and 3.300 Wh/mg using 12 V being the highest value compared to 3 and 5 V. The formation of chlorinated by-products from four selected pharmaceuticals, simvastatin (C11H13Cl3O5, and C10H12Cl4O3), prazosin (C13H12Cl3N5O3 and C10H11Cl4N2O2), carbamazepine and caffeine (C15H11N2O2Cl and C8H9N4O2Cl) was identified and elucidated using liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS).


pharmaceuticals; indirect electrochemical oxidation process; graphite-PVC anode; solid phase extraction; LC-TOF/MS; consumption energy

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Copyright (c) 2020 Zainab H. Mussa, Fouad F. Al-Qaim, Zahraa H. Alqaim, Jalifah Latip

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