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Selective Removal of Sodium Ions from Aqueous Media Using Effective Adsorbents: Optimization by RSM and Genetic Algorithm

Lei Yao, Chao Hong, Hani Dashtifard, Hossein Esmaeili


This study aimed to determine the best adsorbent among Moringa oleifera-derived activated carbon (AC), eggshell-derived CaO nanoparticles and CaO/Fe3O4 for sodium (Na+) removal from aqueous media. In the first step, the appropriate adsorbent for sodium adsorption was determined among the three adsorbents, which the results showed that the AC had the highest sorption efficiency. Then, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the impact of different factors on the Na+ ion sorption efficiency using the
AC. The highest removal efficiency was obtained to be 95.91% at optimum conditions such as pH of 11, contact time of 45 min, temperature of 25 °C, sodium ion concentration of 900 mg/L, and adsorbent dosage of 5 g/L. Also, the best conditions using the genetic algorithm was obtained at contact time of 94.97 min, adsorbent dosage of 3.52 g/L, Na+ ion concentration of 939.92 mg/L and pH value of 10.92. Moreover, the maximum sorption capacity using the Langmuir model was obtained to be 249.67 mg/g, which was a significant value. Besides, the equilibrium and kinetic studies indicated that the experimental data of sodium adsorption process were fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. Furthermore, the thermodynamic study indicated that the sorption process was endothermic. Generally, among the three adsorbents used, activated carbon with a high removal efficiency and significant sorption capacity can be considered as a promising adsorbent for the removal of sodium from wastewater on an industrial scale.


Adsorption; Sodium; Moringa oleifera; Response surface methodology (RSM); Genetic algorithm

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Copyright (c) 2020 Hani Dashtifard, Hossein Esmaeili

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