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Ionic Liquid-Assisted Liquid–Liquid Microextraction based on the Solidification of Floating Organic Droplet in Sample Preparation for Simultaneous Determination of Herbicide Residues in Fruits

Jitlada Vichapong, Yanawath Santaladchaiyakit, Rodjana Burakham, Supalax Srijaranai


An environmentally friendly approach, ionic liquid-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplet (ILSFOD-LLME) was investigated for analysis of four herbicide residues (i.e. simazine, atrazine, propazine, and linuron) by high performance liquid chromatography.  For ILSFOD-LLME, the optimum extraction conditions were 5% w/v Na2SO4, 30 µL [C4MIM][PF6]RTIL, 100 µL of 1-octanol, ultrasonication time 30 s and centrifugation time of 5000 rpm for 5 min. Under the optimum condition, linearity was obtained within the range of 0.0001–1 µg g-1, with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.999.  The high enrichment factor of the target analytes were in the ranged of 64.5 – 139.9 and low limit of detection could be obtained.  A modified QuEChERS was applied for fruit sample preparation before analysis.  Matrix effects were also investigated using matrix matched standards for building up the calibration graph.  This proposed method has been successfully applied for extraction and preconcentration of herbicide residues in fruit samples, and good recoveries in the range of 87.32% to 99.93% were obtained.


QuEChERS; ionic liquid; extraction; HPLC; herbicides

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