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Nanostructured ZnFe2O4 as Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries: Ionic Liquid-Assisted Synthesis and Performance Evaluation with Special Emphasis on Comparative Metal Dissolution

Haiping Jia, Richard Kloepsch, Xin He, Marco Evertz, Sascha Nowak, Jie Li, Martin Winter, Tobias Placke

Abstract


In this work, a ZnFe2O4 anode material was successfully synthesized by a novel ionic liquid-assisted synthesis method followed by a carbon coating procedure. The as-prepared ZnFe2O4 particles demonstrate a relatively homogeneous particle size distribution with particle diameters ranging from 40 to 80 nm. This material, which is well known to offer an interesting combination of an alloying and conversion mechanism, is capable of accommodating nine equivalents of lithium per unit formula, resulting in a high specific capacity (≥ 1,000 mAh g-1). The resulting composite anode material displayed a stable capacity of ca. 1,091 mAh g-1 for 190 cycles at a medium de-lithiation potential of 1.7 V and at a charge/discharge rate of 1C. Furthermore, the material displays an excellent high rate capability up to 20C, displaying a reversible capacity of still 216 mAh g-1. Studies on Fe and Zn losses of the ZnFe2O4 active material by dissolution in the electrolyte were performed and compared to those of silicon-, germanium and tin-based high-capacity anode materials. In conclusion, ion dissolution from metal containing anode materials should not be underestimated in view of its impact on the overall cell performance and cycling stability.

Keywords


ZnFe2O4/C composite; anode material; ionic liquid; metal dissolution; lithium ion batteries

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17344/acsi.2016.2243

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Copyright (c) 2016 Haiping Jia, Richard Kloepsch, Xin He, Marco Evertz, Sascha Nowak, Jie Li, Martin Winter, Tobias Placke

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